Entwicklung der Webanwendung (v2.0)

Ein Bericht von David Glück und Andreas Wagner

Am 1. März 2018 wurde die Version 1.0 der Webanwendung im Rahmen eines Beitrags von Andreas Wagner und David Glück bei der Konferenz „Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum 2018“ als freie Software veröffentlicht und der wissenschaftlichen Community zur Verfügung gestellt. Seitdem wird die Webanwendung in Open Source und mit einem laufenden Versionierungs­modell weiterentwickelt. Sowohl die Webanwendung als Ganze als auch die einzelnen Releases der Anwendung sind seitdem nachhaltig archiviert und über DOIs zitierbar.1 Ebenfalls 2018 wurde die auf der Webanwendung aufbauende Digitale Quellensammlung des Projekts erstmals einem fachwissenschaftlichen Publikum präsentiert und (in Verbindung mit der Publikation von Francisco de Vitorias Confessionario, des ersten Textes der Digitalen Quellensammlung) als Forschungsplattform veröffentlicht. Im März 2020 haben wir die Version 2.0 der Webanwendung veröffentlicht. Im Folgenden wollen wir einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Entwicklungen seit der erstmaligen Veröffentlichung geben. „Entwicklung der Webanwendung (v2.0)“ weiterlesen

Die Schule von Salamanca: Neue digitale Edition von Juan Ginés de Sepúlvedas „Apologia“ jetzt online

Nach Bartolomé de las Casas ist nun auch sein Widersacher in der Debatte von Valladolid, der Humanist und Historiker Karls V., Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, in der digitalen Quellensammlung vertreten: mit seiner „Apología pro libro de iustis belli causis“ (1552).

Das im Titel angesprochene „Buch über die gerechten Gründe für den Krieg“ ist Sepúlvedas „Democrates Alter“, eine in Dialogform präsentierte Abhandlung über die Rechtfertigung des spanischen Eroberungsrechts in Amerika, die in erster Linie wegen der harschen Kritik und prominenten abschlägigen Gutachten aus den Universitäten Salamanca und Alcalá nicht gedruckt werden durfte. In den Druck gelangte allein die „Apología“ und blieb so bis ins frühe 20. Jahrhundert die einzige gedruckte Quelle für Sepúlvedas kolonialpolitische Gedanken.

https://www.salamanca.school/de/workDetails.html?wid=W0095

(English) Juan Belda Plans: Presentación de la edición crítica y la traducción al español de la Relectio de Poenitentia de Melchor Cano

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Date: 5.02.2020
Time: 14:30 – 16:00
Speaker: Juan Belda Plans (Valencia)
Organisation: Christiane Birr, José Luis Egío
Place: MPIeR
Room: Z01

After the introduction to his editing and translation project in March 2019 [https://blog.salamanca.school/de/2019/03/11/salamanca-kolloquium-observaciones-sobre-edicion-critica-de-melchor-cano-metodos-y-subsidios-para-el-trabajo/], Juan Belda Plans will be once again a guest at the Salamanca Colloquium. This time he presents the results of his work in Frankfurt: the completed critical edition of the Relectio de Poenitentia (1549) by Melchor Cano, published in 2020, with Spanish translation.

The Colloquium will be held in Spanish.

(English) Boris Hogenmüller: Melchor Cano, De locis theologicis – some remarks on concept and reception of the Loci

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Date: 15.01.2020
Time: 14:30 – 16:00
Speaker: Boris Hogenmüller (Würzburg)
Organisation: Christiane Birr, José Luis Egío
Place: MPIeR
Room: Z01

With his extensive and complex major work De locis theologicis, Melchor Cano layed the foundations of modern dogmatics in theology. A German translation of this work was carfried out from 2006 to 20014 in the DFG project „Melchior Cano De locis theologicis. Critical Edition of the Latin Text and German Translation“ by Elmar Klinger, Thomas Franz and Boris Hogenmüller. Subsequently, Hogenmüller edited and translated the Melchiori Cani Vindicationes by the French Dominican François-Jacques-Hyacinthe Serry, published in 1714, with which Serry defended Cano and the Loci against various theological-literary attacks. In the colloquium Boris Hogenmüller will talk about Cano, his work and its reception in the early modern period and thus give an insight into the highly intense theological-scientific discussions of the 16th and 17th centuries.

The Colloquium will be held in English.

(English) Bruna Franceschini: Reflections on the Legal Subject in the Context of Latin American Colonialism

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Date: 11.12.2019
Time: 14:30 – 16:00
Speaker: Bruna Franceschini (Coimbra)
Organisation: Christiane Birr, José Luis Egío
Place: MPIeR
Room: Z01

Bruna Franceschini will talk about her doctoral research project that aims to investigate some roots of the formation of the notion of subject of Law in the context of Latin American colonialism, mainly in Brazilian context. In fact, the work is an attempt to associate the contributions of Legal History to reflections of Philosophy of Law concerning the recognition of the other for the construction of legal intersubjectivity.

The Colloquium will be held in English.

Arbeitsgespräch „Translating Melchor Cano“

Datum: 11.10.2019
Uhrzeit: 11:00 – 13:00
Teilnehmer: Juan Belda Plans (Valencia), Elmar Klinger (Würzburg/Herzogenaurach), Boris Hogenmüller (Würzburg), Thomas Franz (Würzburg)
Organisation: Christiane Birr (MPIeR)
Ort: MPIeR
Raum: Z02

Melchor Cano (1509-1560) gehört zu den bedeutendsten Autoren der Schule von Salamanca: Bereits mit fünfzehn Jahren trat er als Schüler Francisco de Vitorias in Salamanca in den Dominikaner-Orden ein. Mit fünfundzwanzig erhielt er seinen ersten theologischen Lehrstuhl in Valladolid; nach dem Tod seines akademischen Lehrers Vitoria 1546 übernahm er dessen renommierten Lehrstuhl in Salamanca selbst. Sein Hauptwerk, De locis theologicis, 1563 posthum in Salamanca erschienen, ist das Grundlagenwerk theologischer Erkenntnislehre der Neuzeit und stellt das erste Gesamtprogramm katholischer Dogmatik als eigenständiger Disziplin dar.

Eine spanische Übersetzung dieses ebenso zentralen wie komplexen Werks der neuzeitlichen Theologie legte Juan Belda Plans 2006 vor; Elmar Klinger, Thomas Franz und Boris Hogenmüller erarbeiteten eine deutsche Über­setzung, deren Publikation noch aussteht. In dem Arbeitsgespräch wird es um die besonderen Anforderungen an die Interpretation und Übersetzung theolo­gi­scher Texte der Schule von Salamanca gehen, um die Spezifika früh­neu­zeit­li­chen Lateins und den Stellenwert von Übersetzungen in der modernen Rezeption der Schule von Salamanca.

Diskussionssprachen sind Spanisch und Deutsch.

Die Schule von Salamanca: Neue digitale Edition von Diego de Avendaños „Thesaurus Indicus, Vol. 1“ jetzt online

Diego de Avendaño (1594-1688) wurde in Segovia geboren. Während seiner Studienzeit in Sevilla lernte er Juan de Solórzano Pereira kennen und begleitete ihn noch vor seinem zwanzigsten Geburtstag in die Neue Welt. Avendaño setzte seine Studien in Lima am Colegio San Martín der Jesuiten fort, trat selbst in den Orden ein und unterrichtete und leitete in den folgenden Jahrzehnten die Kollegien und Ordensuniversitäten in Cuzco, Charcas und Lima. Nach, wie er selbst sagte, „beinahe fünfzig Jahren in Peru“ veröffentlichte er mit dem sechsbändigen Thesaurus Indicus sein Hauptwerk, in dem er eine Fülle von Fragen weltlicher Verwaltung und geistlicher Praxis bespricht. Alle sechs Bände werden sukzessive in der Digitalen Quellensammlung des Projekts „Die Schule von Salamanca“ erscheinen. Ein Anfang ist nun mit dem ersten Band, der sich den Fragen des weltlichen Regiments Perus im 16. und frühen 17. Jahrhundert widmet, gemacht.

(English) José Luis Egío: The Emergence of Scholastic Probabilism in a Global Perspective

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In the last session of the Salamanca colloquium, José Luis Egío drew on his in-depth knowledge of the sources acquired by the intense editorial work done in the project and traced some roots of scholastic probabilism in the 16th century.

The history of probabilism has been the subject of important recent publications on scholastic legal and theological thought (Tutino, OUP, 2018; Schüssler, Brill, 2019). Nevertheless, the contribution of the specific historical context and global dimension of the early modern period’s enormous political, religious and economic changes to the emergence of probabilism has usually been underestimated and has received little attention. However, by exploring the missionary and mercantile fields and the writings of members of the School of Salamanca such as Francisco de Vitoria, Tomás de Mercado and Alonso de la Vera Cruz, José Luis Egío showed how the increasing use of probable argumentation was one of the many strategies employed by jurists and theologians to accommodate or translate the normative framework of European theology and canon law to new and unforeseen contexts and to try to answer new dubia.

(English) Summer School „Baroque Scholasticism“ and Workshop „Baroque Scholasticism and Early Modern Thought“

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Date: 26.-30.08.2019
Place: MPIeR, Lecture Hall (Z01)

The Summer School looks at the contribution of the Baroque Scholastics to the development of modern philosophy. It offers all students and doctoral researchers with a serious interest in scholastic thought of the Baroque era (roughly between the 1560s, the end of the Council of Trent, to 1789, the French Revolution) an occasion to deepen their involvement with this subject under the guidance of internationally renowned scholars in the field.

The aim of Summer School and Workshop is to increase the visibility of Baroque scholastic thought and to promote its investigation as the rise of modern philosophy during this period cannot be understood satisfactorily without accounting for the still flourishing and dynamically developing contemporaneous scholastic thought.

Summer School and Workshop are organized and led by Rudolf Schuessler (Bayreuth) and Marko Fuchs (Bamberg) in cooperation with the team of the Salamanca project.

From the project team, Andreas Wagner will hold a lecture about Political Theory Between Scholastic Theology, Aristotelian Philosophy and Law, whereas José Luis Egío will offer a workshop on the topic of Fighting Canonists with Probabilities. Juridical and Theological Truths in Some Masters of the School of Salamanca (Vitoria, Vera Cruz, Báñez).

The lectures and workshops will be held in English.

Program

(English) How to Get to „Seuilla“: Dealing with Early Modern Orthography in a Search Engine

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One of the central tools for working with the texts in the School of Salamanca’s digital collection of sources is our digital edition’s search functionality, which is supposed to provide an easy-to-use means for querying single texts or the whole corpus for search terms. Speaking from a technical perspective, the quality of this search functionality – or, more precisely, the search engine that it is powered by – depends on several resources that it needs to be provided with, such as high-quality dictionaries for the languages in the corpus as well as a suitable setup for the search engine’s ‚indexing‘ of the texts. As we recently encountered a demand to adjust the functioning of our search engine in a rather fundamental way due to some specific orthographic properties of the texts we are dealing with, I would like to use this opportunity to give a rough (and, hopefully, not too technical) overview of the functioning of our search before going into detail about the problem at hand.

In the case of our digital edition, the search functionality is currently based on a Sphinxsearch engine that provides our web application with search results in the following way: whenever a user triggers a search (say, for the Latin term „lex“), the web application sends a request to the Sphinxsearch engine (that is, a data server independent from the web application) asking for all text snippets that include the search term, or a term derived from its lemma (such as „leges“ or „legum“), or even – if they are available in the engine’s dictionaries – translated forms of the term (hence, in this case, we would also find the Spanish term „ley“). These snippets, which are returned by the search server after it has gone through its indexes, are then displayed in the search results view in our webpage. Of course, this works only if the search server has already indexed these snippets beforehand (where ‚indexing‘ generally means the process of storing and making the text snippets searchable), so that it can quickly fetch them on demand. Therefore, whenever a new work is being published in our digital collection, text snippets for the respective work are created through the web application, and a nightly indexing routine of the search server regularly requests all available snippets from the web app, thus making sure that the snippets it holds are updated on a day-to-day basis. As one might already guess with regards to the prevalence of the term ‚index(ing)‘ in this paragraph, a suitable configuration of the indexing routine is of central importance for a well-functioning search engine, and it is precisely the configuration of the indexing which we recently had to revise fundamentally due to a problem that we were hinted at by users of the search function.

In our Latin and Spanish texts, a frequent orthographic pattern is the interchangeability of certain characters like „u“ or „i“ such that a word may occur in different forms throughout texts from the same period, or even within the same text, without varying in its meaning. To take a concrete example, it is not unusual in our texts to find a word like „Sevilla“ (the city in Spain) also as „Seuilla“ or, potentially, even as „Sebilla“. In this example, the interchangeability of characters applies to the characters „v“, „u“, and „b“, but it may also involve other frequently-used character pairings such as „i“ and „j“ (e.g., „ius“ vs. „jus“), as well as some more rarely and, for the modern reader, more unexpectedly occurring pairings such as „j“ and „x“ (e.g., „dejar“ vs. „dexar“).

The problem with such interchangeable characters, from a search engine’s point of view, is that the engine does not know about their equivalence and thus cannot yield the whole set of search results for certain queries. For example, if a user searches for the above-mentioned „Sevilla“ in its modern spelling, the engine will only return results in which the exact character string „Sevilla“ occurs, but not strings like „Seuilla“ or „Sebilla“.

There are, however, certain ways to cope with this problem. One quick (and, from a system administrator’s perspective, quite lazy) solution would be to advise the user to be aware of this problem and to anticipate it in her search queries. For instance, our search engine allows for the use of ‚regular expressions‘ in queries, which makes it possible to replace certain characters by so called ‚wildcards‘: in this way, all possible forms of „Sevilla“ could be found by using a query string such as „Se?illa“, where the „?“ question mark stands for any character. As this „solution“ would demand quite a lot of anticipation from the user, who may not be aware of all the pitfalls of early modern orthography, it is not a very good option. In general, we want to facilitate the usage of our digital tools for the user as much as possible, and this certainly includes the search functionality as a central component of the toolset.

A second possible solution, then, would be to extend the dictionaries of word forms that are used to index the text snippets in such a way that for any word form containing one or more interchangeable characters we also add all its different forms to the respective dictionary. Unfortunately, this is practically unfeasable in a manual and „scholarly controlled“ way, since our dictionaries of word forms currently hold between 600,000 (Spanish) and over 2,000,000 (Latin) word forms (and counting). Any endeavour to manually add word forms – even if one would only stick to important ones, such as names – would always represent an open-ended task. The only comprehensive and (ideally) complete solution thus seems to be an automatic replacing of word forms, and fortunately, this is where the Sphinxsearch engine offers quite handy configuration options.

In the configuration for the indexing routine, Sphinxsearch allows for the definition of certain directives that can be used to enhance, speed up, or tweak the indexing (and, thus, the searchability of words). In particular, there is a charset_table directive that can be used for stating which symbols should be relevant for the index, and this directive also makes it possible to map characters to other characters. Until now, for example, the character mapping configuration read as follows:

charset_type = utf-8
charset_table = 0..9, A..Z->a..z, a..z, U+C0..U+FF, U+100..U+17F, U+1C4..U+233, U+370..U+3E1, U+590..U+5FF, U+400..U+7FF, U+500..U+8FF

Here, we first declare the „utf-8“ encoding (which is one of the prevalent encodings for the nowadays ubiquitous Unicode character set) as the encoding to be applied for indexing text snippets. The charset_table field then determines which characters are relevant for the indexing routine, and, if required, which of those characters shall be regarded as equivalent to other characters. In this setting, for example, we have stated that we consider digits between 0 and 9 as relevant (0..9), and that all capitalized characters are to be treated as lowercased characters (A..Z->a..z) such that a query for the term „Sevilla“ will also find the lowercased form „sevilla“ (of course, we also need to declare these lowercased characters as relevant for indexing through the , a..z, segment). Furthermore, we have extended the set of relevant symbols by including the Latin Extended A character block (that is, Unicode symbols in the range between codepoints „U+0100“ and „U+017F“: U+100..U+17F) and certain parts of other Unicode blocks such as Latin Extended B, Greek and Coptic, etc.

Now, the solution to our problem lies in the possibility of mapping characters to other characters. Similar to the above-mentioned way of mapping capitalized characters to lowercased characters, we can map a character such as „u“ to a completely different character such as „v“, thereby evoking the desired effects of character normalization:

charset_table = 0..9, A..I->a..i,J->i,j->i,K..T->k..t,U->v,u->v,V..Z->v..z,a..i,k..t,v..z,U+C0..U+FF, U+100..U+17F, U+1C4..U+233, U+370..U+3E1,U+590..U+5FF, U+400..U+7FF, U+500..U+8FF

What simply was A..Z->a..z (the mapping of all capitalized characters „A-Z“ to their lowercased equivalents) in the previous configuration has now become slightly more complicated:

[...,]A..I->a..i,J->i,j->i,K..T->k..t,U->v,u->v,V..Z->v..z,a..i,k..t,v..z,[...]

Here, we first map all capitalized characters „A..I“ to their lowercased equivalents, but then we map the capitalized and lowercased „J“/“j“ to the lowercased „i“ (not „j“). Equally, after mapping all characters between „K..T“ to their equivalents „k..t“, we apply a mapping for „U“/“u“, which are both to be treated as „v“ by the indexing routine. Like this, we effectively declare „J“/“j“ and „i“ as well as „U“/“u“ and „v“ as equivalent characters, thus normalizing j/i and u/v for any search query. Note that the mapping/replacement of characters stated here has effect only for the „internal“ indexing of the snippets in the search engine, but does not actually transform the text snippets displayed to the user in the end by any means.

For the time being, we have refrained from defining further normalizations such as with „v“ and „b“, or „j“ and „x“, since it is not yet fully clear to us what (unexpected) effects such all-encompassing character normalizations might have, especially in „exotic“ use cases that we cannot even imagine. In particular, ‚transitive‘ normalization effects are something that we still need to experiment with: If „j“ and „i“ are equivalent and „j“ and „x“ are equivalent, then „i“ and „x“ are also equivalent, although „i“ and „x“ might not have been used in such an interchangeable manner in early modern texts. Therefore, we very much welcome any further suggestions – also beyond the character pairings mentioned here – that we can use for enhancing our search engine further.