Polina Solonets and Maxim Kupreyev, members of the project team, participated in the poster presentation as a part of the DARIAH Annual Event 2023 taking place on June 6th to June 9th in Budapest. This year the conference topic was ‘Cultural Heritage Data as Humanities Research Data?’. Polina and Maxim introduced their approach to sustainable workflow organisation when working on a large scale edition and presented a poster entitled: ‚Sustainable Practices for the Large-Scale TEI Editions at the School of Salamanca Text Collection‘.
In the last months, the Salamanca team has joined forces with colleagues from the Max Planck Institute of Legal History and Legal Theory in Frankfurt a.M. to set up the Permanent Seminary ‚Legal History Meets Digital Humanities‘. As our own work centers on creating digital editions of the Salamancan authors, we are especially happy that Georg Vogeler from the Centre for Digital Humanities at the University of Graz (Austria) followed our invitation and will be our guest on July 25, 2023, 15.00-17.00.
Academic disciplines such as philosophy, theology, and jurisprudence tend to regard the mediality of texts as a matter of secondary importance, because they understand them primarily as a means of discussing concepts and the relations between them, using established terminologies in the debate. For these purposes, philological editing methods appear to be relevant only when there is „substantial“ variance, which means a textual variance that generates different concepts and changes their relationships.
Historians go even further when they want to critically compare the facts reported in the texts. In this case, linguistic variance becomes even less significant. Therefore, Vogeler would like to discuss with the participants of the seminar: a) whether it is also possible to investigate the factual referents behind the linguistic expression in legal history and b) whether the methods he has proposed to capture the level of meaning in texts seem feasible in editing practice.
Georg Vogeler is a historian with an interest in the Late Middle Ages, particularly medieval administrative documents and diplomatics. His research encompasses Digital Scholarly Editing, Semantic Web technologies, Data Modelling, and application of Data Science to the Humanities.
The event is organised in a hybrid mode. Please register here: https://www.eventbrite.de/e/the-assertive-edition-hybrid-event-tickets-667358044877?aff=oddtdtcreator
(Talk given at TEI 2022 conference in Newcastle University, https://zenodo.org/record/7101456)
The topic of this year’s TEI conference and members’ meeting — “text as data” — addressed a growing amount and diversity of textual data produced by the humanities projects. With the increase of data there is also an expanding need for its quality assurance. Several research data projects have already assigned specific teams to tackle the task of standardizing the continuous quality management. I refer, for example, to the task area “Standards, Data Quality and Curation” within the NFDI4Culture consortium, or the KONDA project at the Göttingen State and University Library. The XML data production is in fact a process of a continuous validation, correction, and improvement, involving, inter alia, ODD, RelaxNG, and XML Schemata; custom Python and R scripts; the XSLT, XQuery and Schematron routines integrated into a test-driven development frameworks such as XSpec.
In my talk I addressed a rather unconventional way of testing the TEI data, namely printing it. TEI production workflows frequently presuppose HTML and PDF export, the issue I focused on is the diagnostic value of such prints for the quality control.
Since its beginning in 2013, the Salamanca Project has been developing a text editing workflow based on methods and practices for sustainable and scalable text processing. Sustainability in text processing encompasses not only reusability of the tools and methods developed and applied, but also long-term documentation and traceability of the development of the text data. This documentation will provide an important starting point for future research work. Moreover, the text preparation must be scalable, since the Digital Source Collection comprises a relatively large mass of texts for a full-text digital edition project: in total, it will involve more than 108,000 printed pages from early modern prints in Latin and Spanish, which must be edited in an efficient and at the same time quality-assured manner.
In the following, I will introduce the sequence of stages that each work in the Digital Source Collection goes through, from locating a suitable digitization template in a public library to metadata and the completion of a full text in TEI All format, enriched with the project’s specifications. „(English) The School of Salamanca Text Workflow: From the early modern print to TEI-All.“ weiterlesen
Text: José Luis Egío
The “discovery” of America, a continent without precedents in the history of the Western culture, had a major impact on the way in which knowledge was produced by European scholars. Topics such as the impact of late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century geographical discoveries on early modern Iberoamerican natural history, cosmographical, and medical knowledge and the parallel extension of empiricist imperial techniques in the Iberian monarchies during the sixteenth century have been already well established in historical research. On the contrary, scholars have approached only superficially the way in which other “discoveries” – of peoples, customs, practices, and normativities – affected legal thought.
Analysing in detail the writings of jurists and moral theologians trained at Salamanca or at the recently created Spanish American Universities, José Luis Egío shows in his most recent publication how the experience of the foreign lands became „(English) New Publication: “Travelling Scholastics” – The Contribution of Salamanca Scholastics to the Emergence of an Empirical Normative Authority in Early Modern Period“ weiterlesen
Autor: José Luis Egío
Entre el 25 y el 26 de octubre tuvo lugar en el Instituto Max Planck de Historia y Teoría del Derecho un importante Encuentro preparatorio del futuro Diccionario del Lenguaje Jurídico-Político de la Escuela de Salamanca. Estuvieron presentes destacadas figuras de la historia del derecho, la teología y la filosofía en la Primera Edad Moderna, venidos de Universidades italianas, españolas, francesas y danesas, en orden alfabético: Paolo Astorri (Copenhague), Juan Belda Plans (Pamplona), Manuela Bragagnolo (Trento), Luisa Brunori (Lille), Orazio Condorelli (Catania), Francisco Cuena Boy (Santander), Elena Danieli (Bologna), Lidia Lanza (Lisboa), María Martín (Salamanca), Faustino Martínez (Madrid), Joaquín Sedano (Pamplona), Idoya Zorroza (Salamanca), Pilar Mejía (Frankfurt), Ana Soler (Frankfurt).
Durante el Encuentro, en el que se alternaron como lenguas co-oficiales el castellano y el italiano, tuvo lugar la presentación y debate de una serie de borradores de las primeras voces del Diccionario, a cargo de Danieli (maleficium), Belda Plans (theologia) y Cuena Boy (contractus & quasi contractus). Andreas Wagner y José Luis Egío, miembros del proyecto de investigación sobre la Escuela de Salamanca en el que se enmarca el Diccionario, presentaron, por su parte, la voz infidelitas. Ambos hicieron especial énfasis en la estructura y características formales que deberían tener los distintos artículos del Diccionario para lograr conformar, andando el tiempo, una obra homogénea. Las diferentes presentaciones estimularon, además, un amplio debate sobre formas idóneas para integrar las fuentes escolásticas en las distintas voces, el desafío que representa un amplio listado de conceptos cuyas implicaciones y campos de aparición son diversos en las obras de teólogos y juristas o las potencialidades a esperar de la versión electrónica de las voces del Diccionario, estrechamente interrelacionadas con el Corpus de fuentes de la Escuela de Salamanca que, actualmente, está siendo editado.
El Encuentro sirvió asimismo para que Christiane Birr (coordinadora del proyecto La Escuela de Salamanca) y Thomas Duve (director del mismo) ofrecieran un balance del estado de desarrollo del mismo y discutieran con los y las participantes las estrategias de investigación a implementar en el futuro. Fruto de los debates celebrados se profundizó, por ejemplo, en la criba del listado de lemas a incluir en el Diccionario del Lenguaje de la Escuela de Salamanca, sugiriéndose estrategias para subsumir algunos lemas dentro de otros con un espectro de significación más amplio o la incorporación de términos relevantes provenientes del ámbito del derecho mercantil.
The idea: automatic depositing the project’s TEI files at Zenodo
We have been using the github-zenodo integration for a while already with our source code releases. This allows us to deposit our code, update the deposit with new releases and get a persistent identifier for each of the versions. Since we are facing similar requirements for our TEI XML files, I have investigated how we could take profit of this or a similar mechanism. The crucial difference is this: The integration as it is makes deposits from releases/snapshots of the whole github repository, i.e. of all the files that are in the version control system. This is good for software, where all the files depend on each other and make sense only in the context of an encompassing application. But for our TEI sources, it would be better to have deposits for individual files (and persistent identifiers for them) rather than for the collection as a whole.
So I have developed a „TEI2Zenodo“ service (in the following just „t2z“) that can take care of uploading our files to zenodo. The idea is that a project or an institution that regularly wants to commit TEI XML files to long-term archival can host an instance of it and do its uploads via this instance. I have used it to upload 16 of our source TEI files automatically from our github repository.
Last April, Conceptos, autores, instituciones, authored by Alejandra Ramírez Santos and José Luis Egío was published by Dykinson Editors in Madrid. The book offers a panorama on the research on the School of Salamanca carried out in the last decade. In this period a great renewal of research methods took place, together with the growing interest of various disciplines in Salamanca’s scholasticism, its internationalization as a field of study and the launching of various research projects and initiatives of publication of important scholastic sources aimed at broadening previous research perspectives, until recently very focused on the study of natural law, the law of nations and some theological and metaphysical themes. Ramírez’s and Egío’s critical review of the recent research on the School of Salamanca takes its main conclusions from a wide bibliography of 2.176 academic writings having being published between 2008 and 2019. These writings are ordered according to an exhaustive list of thematic descriptors, which make it easy to locate the publications dedicated to a certain author of the School of Salamanca, concept, research topic or institution (mendicant orders, Universities, …). „(English) Book publication: Conceptos, autores, instituciones. Revisión crítica de la investigación reciente sobre la Escuela de Salamanca (2008-19) y bibliografía multidisciplinar“ weiterlesen
In March and April, two new important sources of the Digital Collection of Sources of the School of Salamanca were published:
The Lexicon Iuris Civilis, written by Nebrija in 1506, has been edited according to the printed version of Frellaeus (Lyon, 1537). Part of a big encyclopaedical project undertook by Nebrija to offer the learned community of his time systematic vocabularies of disciplines such as medicine, natural history, theology and law, Nebrija’s Lexicon Iuris Civilis integrated 600 lemmata. „(English) The School of Salamanca: New Digital Editions of Nebrija’s “Lexicon Iuris Civilis” and Diego de Avendaño’s “Thesaurus Indicus”, vol. 3, now online“ weiterlesen
Christiane Birr and José Luis Egío’s chapter in the recently published Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought focusses on a number of 15th-century writings by the jurist Alfonso de Cartagena and the theologian Bernardino López de Carvajal, both of whom were very active in Castilian diplomatic circles. While Francisco de Vitoria is often seen as having played the pioneering role in identifying the new historical dilemmas entailed by the ‘discovery’ of new, pagan peoples in the Americas, the ideas underlying these issues can only be understood in their full complexity if we look back into the 15th century. „(English) Before Vitoria. Birr’s and Egío’s Contribution to the Brill Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought“ weiterlesen