The character of the law of nations is a complex issue for authors of the School of Salamanca. There are debates about the ground of its validity and of its obligatory force. In particular, authors re-worked the just war doctrine, elaborating notions of self-defense, of punishment and of what we would call today humanitarian intervention. However, the discussions did not limit themselves to the single issue of legitimate use of military force: while the Spanish Scholastics identified criteria of such legitimate use, they also ventured to establish sets of precise, substantial norms and rights, both of states and individuals. Thus, topics as the freedom of the seas and certain subjective rights of natural persons, such as the right of access to citizenship, must feature in a discussion of Salmantian notions of the law of nations.
These issues are discussed extensively in a contribution to a collective volume that has appeared recently:
Andreas Wagner: “International Law”, in: Harald Braun, Erik De Bom and Paolo Astorri (eds.): A Companion to the Spanish Scholastics. Leiden: Brill, 2022. https://brill.com/view/title/31552
Continue reading “New Publication: “International Law” according to the Spanish Scholastics (cf. Brill Companion)”
Date: Mar 10, 2021
Time: 14:30 – 16:00
Organisation: Christiane Birr, José Luis Egío, Andreas Wagner
Location: video conference
Room: For further information please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
After a several month break, the Colloquium of the research project ‘The School of Salamanca’ kicks off with a presentation by Prof Dr Francisco Cuena Boy (Faculty of Law, Universidad de Cantabria) entitled ‘The School of Salamanca on Slavery: from ius gentium to ius civile.’ Focusing on the theologian-jurists of the School of Salamanca (16th and 17th centuries), Cuena Boy problematises the traditional historiographical account according to which slavery is an institution of the law of nations. Continue reading “Colloquium: The School of Salamanca on Slavery. From ius gentium to ius civile”
We are happy to announce the publication of the article written by José Luis Egío, “Tomás de Mercado y la transfretación global de bienes y normas. Emergencia del probabilismo y una ética mercantil”, in: Cauriensia. Revista anual de ciencias eclesiásticas 15, 169 – 201 (2020).
The research on probabilism and its emergence, which for the last few decades seemed to be exhausted subjects and restricted to the niche of a highly specialized philosophical literature, has recently been revitalized by the publication of the monographs of Stefania Tutino (2017) and Rudolf Schüßler (2019). As a complement to these recent investigations, this article deals with the important role – not taken into account by the old and new historiography – that Tomás de Mercado, a theologian trained in Mexico and Salamanca, played in the emergence of probabilism as a philosophical current and as a proposal for the renewal of the methods practiced in the moral theology of the time. Continue reading “Article publication: Tomás de Mercado and the Global Transfer of Goods and Norms. Emergence of Probabilism and a Differentiated Mercantile Ethics”
We are happy to announce the publication of the latest instalment in our series “The School of Salamanca Working Papers” (ISSN 2509-5080):
The writings of Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466/69–1536) exerted a significant influence in 16th-century Spain. Based on classical and recent historiography, the present essay examines this religious and cultural phenomenon, with side glances at Luther: After sketching out the life and work of the Christian humanist, the second part deals with Erasmianism in Spain from its widespread reception in the 1520s (at the royal court, at universities and in translations) to the inquisitorial persecution of its followers since the 1530s. Thirdly, newer research trends are discussed that both correct and further develop the classical image shaped by Marcel Bataillon, also with regard to the ambivalent relationship between scholasticism and humanism. To demonstrate Erasmus’ influence in New Spain (Mexico), the final part of this essay turns its attention to the attitudes of (arch)bishops and friars as well as to early colonial case studies.
Continue reading “Otto Danwerth: Erasmus, christlicher Humanismus und Spiritualität in Spanien und Neu-Spanien (16. Jahrhundert)”
The idea: automatic depositing the project’s TEI files at Zenodo
We have been using the github-zenodo integration for a while already with our source code releases. This allows us to deposit our code, update the deposit with new releases and get a persistent identifier for each of the versions. Since we are facing similar requirements for our TEI XML files, I have investigated how we could take profit of this or a similar mechanism. The crucial difference is this: The integration as it is makes deposits from releases/snapshots of the whole github repository, i.e. of all the files that are in the version control system. This is good for software, where all the files depend on each other and make sense only in the context of an encompassing application. But for our TEI sources, it would be better to have deposits for individual files (and persistent identifiers for them) rather than for the collection as a whole.
So I have developed a “TEI2Zenodo” service (in the following just “t2z”) that can take care of uploading our files to zenodo. The idea is that a project or an institution that regularly wants to commit TEI XML files to long-term archival can host an instance of it and do its uploads via this instance. I have used it to upload 16 of our source TEI files automatically from our github repository.
Continue reading “TEI XML to Zenodo service published: Automatic depositing the project’s TEI files at a long-term archive”
Organisation: Christiane Birr, José Luis Egío, Andreas Wagner
Place: Video Conference
After the summer break, the Colloquium of the research project The School of Salamanca relaunches with the presentation of Dr. Francesca Iurlaro (EUI Florence), “The invention of Custom and the School of Salamanca”. Although formulated in terms different from current lawyers, custom was already present in early modern European debates on natural law and the law of nations. Iurlaro’s research – soon available in the book “The Invention of Custom. Natural Law and the Law of Nations, 1550-1750”, Oxford University Press – retraces precisely the neglected history of the debates on the concept of custom in the ius gentium tradition, from Francisco de Vitoria to Emer de Vattel. According to Iurlaro, the moral-theological writings of important members of the School of Salamanca such as Vitoria, Domingo de Soto, Domingo Báñez and Francisco Suárez should be considered as important milestones in the progressive crystallization of a notion of customary international law.
The colloquium will be held in English.
The colloquium will take place in hybrid form: for a restricted number of participants on-site at the MPIeR and for a broader audience as a video conference. For more information and for a draft of the chapter of Iurlaro’s book we are going to discuss, please send an email to email@example.com.
Last April, Conceptos, autores, instituciones, authored by Alejandra Ramírez Santos and José Luis Egío was published by Dykinson Editors in Madrid. The book offers a panorama on the research on the School of Salamanca carried out in the last decade. In this period a great renewal of research methods took place, together with the growing interest of various disciplines in Salamanca’s scholasticism, its internationalization as a field of study and the launching of various research projects and initiatives of publication of important scholastic sources aimed at broadening previous research perspectives, until recently very focused on the study of natural law, the law of nations and some theological and metaphysical themes. Ramírez’s and Egío’s critical review of the recent research on the School of Salamanca takes its main conclusions from a wide bibliography of 2.176 academic writings having being published between 2008 and 2019. These writings are ordered according to an exhaustive list of thematic descriptors, which make it easy to locate the publications dedicated to a certain author of the School of Salamanca, concept, research topic or institution (mendicant orders, Universities, …). Continue reading “Book publication: Conceptos, autores, instituciones. Revisión crítica de la investigación reciente sobre la Escuela de Salamanca (2008-19) y bibliografía multidisciplinar”
In March and April, two new important sources of the Digital Collection of Sources of the School of Salamanca were published:
The Lexicon Iuris Civilis, written by Nebrija in 1506, has been edited according to the printed version of Frellaeus (Lyon, 1537). Part of a big encyclopaedical project undertook by Nebrija to offer the learned community of his time systematic vocabularies of disciplines such as medicine, natural history, theology and law, Nebrija’s Lexicon Iuris Civilis integrated 600 lemmata. Continue reading “The School of Salamanca: New Digital Editions of Nebrija’s “Lexicon Iuris Civilis” and Diego de Avendaño’s “Thesaurus Indicus”, vol. 3, now online”
Christiane Birr and José Luis Egío’s chapter in the recently published Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought focusses on a number of 15th-century writings by the jurist Alfonso de Cartagena and the theologian Bernardino López de Carvajal, both of whom were very active in Castilian diplomatic circles. While Francisco de Vitoria is often seen as having played the pioneering role in identifying the new historical dilemmas entailed by the ‘discovery’ of new, pagan peoples in the Americas, the ideas underlying these issues can only be understood in their full complexity if we look back into the 15th century. Continue reading “Before Vitoria. Birr’s and Egío’s Contribution to the Brill Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought”
Ein Bericht von David Glück und Andreas Wagner
Am 1. März 2018 wurde die Version 1.0 der Webanwendung im Rahmen eines Beitrags von Andreas Wagner und David Glück bei der Konferenz „Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum 2018“ als freie Software veröffentlicht und der wissenschaftlichen Community zur Verfügung gestellt. Seitdem wird die Webanwendung in Open Source und mit einem laufenden Versionierungsmodell weiterentwickelt. Sowohl die Webanwendung als Ganze als auch die einzelnen Releases der Anwendung sind seitdem nachhaltig archiviert und über DOIs zitierbar. Ebenfalls 2018 wurde die auf der Webanwendung aufbauende Digitale Quellensammlung des Projekts erstmals einem fachwissenschaftlichen Publikum präsentiert und (in Verbindung mit der Publikation von Francisco de Vitorias Confessionario, des ersten Textes der Digitalen Quellensammlung) als Forschungsplattform veröffentlicht. Im März 2020 haben wir die Version 2.0 der Webanwendung veröffentlicht. Im Folgenden wollen wir einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Entwicklungen seit der erstmaligen Veröffentlichung geben. Continue reading “(Deutsch) Entwicklung der Webanwendung (v2.0)”