(English) The School of Salamanca Text Workflow: From the early modern print to TEI-All.

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Since its beginning in 2013, the Salamanca Project has been developing a text editing workflow based on methods and practices for sustainable and scalable text processing. Sustainability in text processing encompasses not only reusability of the tools and methods developed and applied, but also long-term documentation and traceability of the development of the text data. This documentation will provide an important starting point for future research work. Moreover, the text preparation must be scalable, since the Digital Source Collection comprises a relatively large mass of texts for a full-text digital edition project: in total, it will involve more than 108,000 printed pages from early modern prints in Latin and Spanish, which must be edited in an efficient and at the same time quality-assured manner.

In the following, I will introduce the sequence of stages that each work in the Digital Source Collection goes through, from locating a suitable digitization template in a public library to metadata and the completion of a full text in TEI All format, enriched with the project’s specifications. Continuar leyendo «(English) The School of Salamanca Text Workflow: From the early modern print to TEI-All.»

(English) New Publication: “Travelling Scholastics” – The Contribution of Salamanca Scholastics to the Emergence of an Empirical Normative Authority in Early Modern Period

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Text: José Luis Egío

The “discovery” of America, a continent without precedents in the history of the Western culture, had a major impact on the way in which knowledge was produced by European scholars. Topics such as the impact of late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century geographical discoveries on early modern Iberoamerican natural history, cosmographical, and medical knowledge and the parallel extension of empiricist imperial techniques in the Iberian monarchies during the sixteenth century have been already well established in historical research. On the contrary, scholars have approached only superficially the way in which other “discoveries” – of peoples, customs, practices, and normativities – affected legal thought.

Analysing in detail the writings of jurists and moral theologians trained at Salamanca or at the recently created Spanish American Universities, José Luis Egío shows in his most recent publication how the experience of the foreign lands became Continuar leyendo «(English) New Publication: “Travelling Scholastics” – The Contribution of Salamanca Scholastics to the Emergence of an Empirical Normative Authority in Early Modern Period»

Encuentro preparatorio de un Diccionario del Lenguaje Jurídico-Político de la Escuela de Salamanca en Frankfurt

Autor: José Luis Egío

Entre el 25 y el 26 de octubre tuvo lugar en el Instituto Max Planck de Historia y Teoría del Derecho un importante Encuentro preparatorio del futuro Diccionario del Lenguaje Jurídico-Político de la Escuela de Salamanca. Estuvieron presentes destacadas figuras de la historia del derecho, la teología y la filosofía en la Primera Edad Moderna, venidos de Universidades italianas, españolas, francesas y danesas, en orden alfabético: Paolo Astorri (Copenhague), Juan Belda Plans (Pamplona), Manuela Bragagnolo (Trento), Luisa Brunori (Lille), Orazio Condorelli (Catania), Francisco Cuena Boy (Santander), Elena Danieli (Bologna), Lidia Lanza (Lisboa), María Martín (Salamanca), Faustino Martínez (Madrid), Joaquín Sedano (Pamplona), Idoya Zorroza (Salamanca), Pilar Mejía (Frankfurt), Ana Soler (Frankfurt).

Durante el Encuentro, en el que se alternaron como lenguas co-oficiales el castellano y el italiano, tuvo lugar la presentación y debate de una serie de borradores de las primeras voces del Diccionario, a cargo de Danieli (maleficium), Belda Plans (theologia) y Cuena Boy (contractus & quasi contractus). Andreas Wagner y José Luis Egío, miembros del proyecto de investigación sobre la Escuela de Salamanca en el que se enmarca el Diccionario, presentaron, por su parte, la voz infidelitas. Ambos hicieron especial énfasis en la estructura y características formales que deberían tener los distintos artículos del Diccionario para lograr conformar, andando el tiempo, una obra homogénea. Las diferentes presentaciones estimularon, además, un amplio debate sobre formas idóneas para integrar las fuentes escolásticas en las distintas voces, el desafío que representa un amplio listado de conceptos cuyas implicaciones y campos de aparición son diversos en las obras de teólogos y juristas o las potencialidades a esperar de la versión electrónica de las voces del Diccionario, estrechamente interrelacionadas con el Corpus de fuentes de la Escuela de Salamanca que, actualmente, está siendo editado.

https://www.salamanca.school/es/works.html

El Encuentro sirvió asimismo para que Christiane Birr (coordinadora del proyecto La Escuela de Salamanca) y Thomas Duve (director del mismo) ofrecieran un balance del estado de desarrollo del mismo y discutieran con los y las participantes las estrategias de investigación a implementar en el futuro. Fruto de los debates celebrados se profundizó, por ejemplo, en la criba del listado de lemas a incluir en el Diccionario del Lenguaje de la Escuela de Salamanca, sugiriéndose estrategias para subsumir algunos lemas dentro de otros con un espectro de significación más amplio o la incorporación de términos relevantes provenientes del ámbito del derecho mercantil.

(English) TEI XML to Zenodo service published: Automatic depositing the project’s TEI files at a long-term archive

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The idea: automatic depositing the project’s TEI files at Zenodo

We have been using the github-zenodo integration for a while already with our source code releases. This allows us to deposit our code, update the deposit with new releases and get a persistent identifier for each of the versions. Since we are facing similar requirements for our TEI XML files, I have investigated how we could take profit of this or a similar mechanism. The crucial difference is this: The integration as it is makes deposits from releases/snapshots of the whole github repository, i.e. of all the files that are in the version control system. This is good for software, where all the files depend on each other and make sense only in the context of an encompassing application. But for our TEI sources, it would be better to have deposits for individual files (and persistent identifiers for them) rather than for the collection as a whole.

So I have developed a «TEI2Zenodo» service (in the following just «t2z») that can take care of uploading our files to zenodo. The idea is that a project or an institution that regularly wants to commit TEI XML files to long-term archival can host an instance of it and do its uploads via this instance. I have used it to upload 16 of our source TEI files automatically from our github repository.

Continuar leyendo «(English) TEI XML to Zenodo service published: Automatic depositing the project’s TEI files at a long-term archive»

(English) Book publication: Conceptos, autores, instituciones. Revisión crítica de la investigación reciente sobre la Escuela de Salamanca (2008-19) y bibliografía multidisciplinar

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Last April, Conceptos, autores, instituciones, authored by Alejandra Ramírez Santos and José Luis Egío was published by Dykinson Editors in Madrid. The book offers a panorama on the research on the School of Salamanca carried out in the last decade. In this period a great renewal of research methods took place, together with the growing interest of various disciplines in Salamanca’s scholasticism, its internationalization as a field of study and the launching of various research projects and initiatives of publication of important scholastic sources aimed at broadening previous research perspectives, until recently very focused on the study of natural law, the law of nations and some theological and metaphysical themes. Ramírez’s and Egío’s critical review of the recent research on the School of Salamanca takes its main conclusions from a wide bibliography of 2.176 academic writings having being published between 2008 and 2019. These writings are ordered according to an exhaustive list of thematic descriptors, which make it easy to locate the publications dedicated to a certain author of the School of Salamanca, concept, research topic or institution (mendicant orders, Universities, …). Continuar leyendo «(English) Book publication: Conceptos, autores, instituciones. Revisión crítica de la investigación reciente sobre la Escuela de Salamanca (2008-19) y bibliografía multidisciplinar»

(English) The School of Salamanca: New Digital Editions of Nebrija’s “Lexicon Iuris Civilis” and Diego de Avendaño’s “Thesaurus Indicus”, vol. 3, now online

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In March and April, two new important sources of the Digital Collection of Sources of the School of Salamanca were published:

The Lexicon Iuris Civilis, written by Nebrija in 1506, has been edited according to the printed version of Frellaeus (Lyon, 1537). Part of a big encyclopaedical project undertook by Nebrija to offer the learned community of his time systematic vocabularies of disciplines such as medicine, natural history, theology and law, Nebrija’s Lexicon Iuris Civilis integrated 600 lemmata. Continuar leyendo «(English) The School of Salamanca: New Digital Editions of Nebrija’s “Lexicon Iuris Civilis” and Diego de Avendaño’s “Thesaurus Indicus”, vol. 3, now online»

(English) Before Vitoria. Birr’s and Egío’s Contribution to the Brill Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought

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Christiane Birr and José Luis Egío’s chapter in the recently published Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought focusses on a number of 15th-century writings by the jurist Alfonso de Cartagena and the theologian Bernardino López de Carvajal, both of whom were very active in Castilian diplomatic circles. While Francisco de Vitoria is often seen as having played the pioneering role in identifying the new historical dilemmas entailed by the ‘discovery’ of new, pagan peoples in the Americas, the ideas underlying these issues can only be understood in their full complexity if we look back into the 15th century. Continuar leyendo «(English) Before Vitoria. Birr’s and Egío’s Contribution to the Brill Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought»

(Deutsch) Entwicklung der Webanwendung (v2.0)

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Ein Bericht von David Glück und Andreas Wagner

Am 1. März 2018 wurde die Version 1.0 der Webanwendung im Rahmen eines Beitrags von Andreas Wagner und David Glück bei der Konferenz „Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum 2018“ als freie Software veröffentlicht und der wissenschaftlichen Community zur Verfügung gestellt. Seitdem wird die Webanwendung in Open Source und mit einem laufenden Versionierungs­modell weiterentwickelt. Sowohl die Webanwendung als Ganze als auch die einzelnen Releases der Anwendung sind seitdem nachhaltig archiviert und über DOIs zitierbar.1 Ebenfalls 2018 wurde die auf der Webanwendung aufbauende Digitale Quellensammlung des Projekts erstmals einem fachwissenschaftlichen Publikum präsentiert und (in Verbindung mit der Publikation von Francisco de Vitorias Confessionario, des ersten Textes der Digitalen Quellensammlung) als Forschungsplattform veröffentlicht. Im März 2020 haben wir die Version 2.0 der Webanwendung veröffentlicht. Im Folgenden wollen wir einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Entwicklungen seit der erstmaligen Veröffentlichung geben. Continuar leyendo «(Deutsch) Entwicklung der Webanwendung (v2.0)»

(English) The School of Salamanca: New Digital Edition of Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda’s «Apologia» now online

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After Bartolomé de las Casas, his adversary in the Valladolid debate, the humanist and historian of Charles V, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda, is now also represented in the Digital Collection of Sources: with his «Apología pro libro de iustis belli causis» (1552). Continuar leyendo «(English) The School of Salamanca: New Digital Edition of Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda’s «Apologia» now online»

(English) Summer School «Baroque Scholasticism» and Workshop «Baroque Scholasticism and Early Modern Thought»

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Date: 26.-30.08.2019
Place: MPIeR, Lecture Hall (Z01)

The Summer School looks at the contribution of the Baroque Scholastics to the development of modern philosophy. It offers all students and doctoral researchers with a serious interest in scholastic thought of the Baroque era (roughly between the 1560s, the end of the Council of Trent, to 1789, the French Revolution) an occasion to deepen their involvement with this subject under the guidance of internationally renowned scholars in the field.

The aim of Summer School and Workshop is to increase the visibility of Baroque scholastic thought and to promote its investigation as the rise of modern philosophy during this period cannot be understood satisfactorily without accounting for the still flourishing and dynamically developing contemporaneous scholastic thought.

Summer School and Workshop are organized and led by Rudolf Schuessler (Bayreuth) and Marko Fuchs (Bamberg) in cooperation with the team of the Salamanca project.

From the project team, Andreas Wagner will hold a lecture about Political Theory Between Scholastic Theology, Aristotelian Philosophy and Law, whereas José Luis Egío will offer a workshop on the topic of Fighting Canonists with Probabilities. Juridical and Theological Truths in Some Masters of the School of Salamanca (Vitoria, Vera Cruz, Báñez).

The lectures and workshops will be held in English.

Program